Thursday, 16 March 2017

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Welcome to UNIT 6:1!

Review: Previously in Unit 5:0, we discussed about how to teach various topics such; ‘Using a Dictionary’ for Form One; ‘Talking about sports’ for Form Two; ‘Reading Extensively’ for Form Three; and ‘Dictations’ for From Four.

In this Unit 6:1, we will learn how to teach the sub topic, Expressing personal routine/habits’ in Form One. In this sub topic, we will practically focus on how to guide students to talk about their personal home routines.

2. Sub Topic: Expressing personal routine/habits.
3. Periods per sub topic: 08
4: Class: Form One.

The aim of the sub topic is to make students able to be able to talk about his/her personal home routine/habits. In this sub topic, the great emphasis is placed on two things: ways of telling time, and ways of expressing the daily habits. Since people repeat some activities every day, it is obvious that these repeated activities are habits that people perform at a particular time and place. In this lesson, students will review telling the time and will then learn to talk about daily routines.
This sub topic focuses on vocabularies that talk about daily routines, and using the present simple in the first and third person. Initially, it is important for students to review telling the time in English, as well as the days of the week. Language to describe routine activities will then be introduced, and students will answer questions about their own daily routines and find out about their classmates’ routines. Therefore, the aims of this sub topic are:
  •        To revise telling the time
  •         To teach the vocabulary of daily routines
  •         To practise the present simple, 1st and 3rd person singular
  •         To review question forms with ‘when?’, ‘What time?

Here the students are introduced to the ways of telling time correctly, the habits or daily habits they have or do at home or school, and the patterns or grammatical structures to be used when expressing time and habits.

The ways if telling time:
Students are introduced how they can correctly tell the time from the format of 12 hours to 24 hours format. It is a normal thing to find even a student for upper secondary level is struggling to tell the time. So this is the right moment to let the students know correct ways of telling time before they start expressing their daily habits.
There are two ways of telling the time:
  1.    The 12-hour clock runs from 1am to 12 noon and then from 1pm to 12 midnight, and
  2.    The 24-hour clock uses the numbers 00:00 to 23:59 (midnight is 00:00).
The 24-hour format is the format that runs from midnight to midnight, that is, from 0 to 23 hours.
Some examples of these differences in time:

12-Hour Format:
I go to the market at 12:00pm in the afternoon.
I start cooking at 1:00pm.
I eat at 2:00pm.

24-Hour Format:
I go to the market at 12:00pm.
I start cooking at 13:00.
I eat at 14:00.

If students are good at ways of telling time, it’s now good to go. But if they are not well aware with ways of telling time, tell them more.
There are two common ways of telling the time:

(a)   Start with the Hour first and then minutes (Hour+Minutes): For example:

6:20 – It’s six twenty five.
8:05 – I’ts eight O-five (The ‘O’ of the letter of alphabet=This is informal).
9:11 – It’s nine eleven.
2:34 – It’s two thirty-four.
(b)   Start the minutes and then the hour (Minutes+PAST/TO+Hour):

*For minutes 1-30, use PAST after the minutes.
*For minutes 31-59, use TO after the minutes.
2:35 – It’s twenty-five TO three.
11:20 – It’s twenty PAST eleven.
4:18 – It’s eighteen PAST four.
2:59 – It’s one TO three.
*When it is 15 MINUTES past the hour, say: a quarter past: as in;
8:15 – It’s a quarter past eight.
*When it is 15 MINUTES before the hour, say; a quarter to:
*When it is 30 MINUTES past the hour, say: half past; as in;
3:30 – It’s HALF PAST three (or three-thirty).
*For use of ‘Clock’: Use the word ‘CLOCK’ when there are no MINUTES, as in:
10:00 – It’s ten o’clock.
1:00 – It’s one o’clock.
*For 12:00, there are four expressions in English. These are:
-Twelve pm.
-Twelve o’clock.
Students should also be reminded with formal and informal ways of telling the time:
See this chart below:
More Formal
It’s ….
Less Formal
It’s …….
Three o’clock
Two minutes past three
Three oh two
Three minutes past three
Three oh three
Twenty-five to four
Three thirty-five
Ten to four
Three fifty

Discussing the number of daily Habits with the students.
These are activities that are performed on daily basis. The students are introduced to these activities by letting them mention what they always do at a particular time of a day. For example, they may be told to discuss what they always do when they wake up at their houses. Let the students mention what they always do during the morning. For instance, they may mention things like:

  1.         Brushing the teeth.
  2.          Taking a bath.
  3.          Drinking tea.
  4.          Cleaning the house.
  5.          Washing the face.
  6.          Greeting the parents.
  7.          Preparing the things for school.
  8.          Running to school.
Introduce students to the Tense and Patterns as they are applied in the topic.
In this part, students are introduced to the tense and patterns that are applied when expressing daily habits at home or school. Simple present tense is widely applied when expressing daily habits. Here students are introduced in this kind of tense in its Affirmative, Negative, and Interrogative.
The key words: These words generally appear in the Present Simple Tense sentences:
Every day, every week, every morning, always, usually, never, frequently.
Affirmative Simple Present Tense:
(Subject+Verb+the rest of the sentence…)
Asha wakes up at 6:00 o’clock.
Juma starts jogging at 6:15.
Negative Simple Present Tense:
(Subject=Don’t-Doesn’t +Verb(Infinitive)+the rest of the sentence:)
Agatha does not wake up at 7:45 in the morning.
Good students do not go to school at 8:00 o’clock.
Interrogative Simple Present Tense:
(Do-Does=Subject+Verb(Infinitive)+the rest of the sentence:)
Does Halima wake up at 6:00 o’clock?
Do students assemble at 7:45 in the morning?

Some examples of Questions and sentences expressing personal routine. After having the knowledge of Simple Present Tense and the Patterns, students can practice expressing their daily activities or habits.
Questions: A teacher can ask students these questions to check the students’ understanding of the ways of telling time and the use of correct patterns in expressing daily routines:
When do you wake up in the morning?
At what time do you brush your teeth?
When do you take a shower?
What time do you take tea?
Answers: When students answer the questions above correctly, now a teacher can move on with other activities of the sub topic:
I wake up early at 6:30 a.m.
I brush my teeth
I take a bath
I prepare breakfast
For more about appropriate tense for expressing Daily Routines, see Present Tense.
For all English Tenses, see All Three Types of English Tenses.
In these activities, students are introduced to the various activities that can help them interact more freely with the ways of expressing various daily activities at home or school.
To bring students close to the topic, the teacher can express his or her own daily activities. As the students listen from the teacher, students can be motivated and learn more about expressing daily habits.
After that, a teacher shows pictures expressing habits of everyday activities by talking about daily routine. Show some pictures with empty spaces so that you can guide them to fill in, and later show them pictures that are filled in so as to let them correct their mistakes when encountered when filling in the blank spaces: Here are some of those pictures a teacher can use:
Credit:  https://www.pinterest.com/pin/471611392215007838/

Now, students should be guided to imitate and practice by giving an account of their daily activities. Allow students to use pictures provided in creating their own daily routines. Provide some more vocabularies for students to work on. See more vocabularies below:
Credit:  https://thebingomaker.com/index.php/bingo-cards/people-vocabulary-bingo-cards/daily-routines-bingo-cards.html
 Give them exercise to work on. See the sample exercise like this below:
Credit: http://papa-english.com/daily-routines/

The teacher to guide students to write about their daily routine through controlled/guided activities. In this activity, students will focus on what they have learnt and practised so far and write individually their personal home of school routines. Here is an example of personal daily routine a student can write under teacher’s guidance:


  1. I wake up at 6’o'clock.
  2. I brush my teeth at 6:05.
  3. I take a bath at 6:10.
  4. I prepare my school bag at 6:15.
  5. I run to school at 6:20.
  6. I sweep my area at 6:30.
  7. I run at parade at 6:45.
NOTE: These are Form One Students and a teacher should keep the sub topic and sentences as simple as possible.
At end of the sub topic, students should be able to effectively express their daily routines:
Credit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tiXAWq852Ts

6: CONNECTION: Beyond the Sub Topic. This sub topic is the topic that is clearly made possible with the students’ ability to understand the Simple Present tense. Thus, the emphasis should be made to ensure that students are much aware of the ways simple present tense is introduced when expressing daily activities.

7: NOTE: Just like other types of tenses, simple present tense won’t be forgotten by the students if they practise speaking English with the much use of such kind of tense or patters. If students are not encouraged to speak, all what they have learnt will be lost as well. Thus why, it’s normal to find a student form upper secondary level is complaining about his or her inability to comprehend tenses. But he there is only one problem: he or she did not practise the tenses by speaking, AND TENSES ARE NOT TO BE LEARNT AND KEPT IN THE HEAD, BUT ARE LEARNT TO BE SPOKEN. And this is like a rule to the whole English language subject. We teachers should teach our students by making them practice what we teach them.

Check out how to Study & Teach other Form One Sub Topics in this Blog!
And many more from ‘O’ Level English Blog!

Also check out how to Study & Teach the following Form Two Sub Topics in this Blog!
And many more from ‘O’ Level English Blog!

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