How to Teach ''Analysing non-factual information from the media" in Form One

How to Teach ''Analysing non-factual information from the media" in Form One

Welcome to UNIT 21.0 

PREVIOUSLY: In Unit 20.0, we covered these sub topics: "Interpreting poems"   in Form One; "Analysing information from the media"  in Form One; "Interpreting simple stories"  in Form Two; and "Interpreting poems"  in Form Two.

IN THIS UNIT 21.0, we will cover the following sub topics: "Analysing nonfactual information from the media" in Form One; "Writing friendly letters" in Form One; "Writing notes from oral texts" in Form One; "Writing cards" in Form Two; and "Writing messages" in Form Two.

IN THIS UNIT 21.1, we will start covering the sub topic "Analyzing nonfactual information from the media" in Form One.
Sub Topic: Analysing non-factual information from the media
Periods per sub topic: 8
Class: Form One
As far as previous Form one topic 'Analysing information from the media' is concerned, this sub topic 'Analysing nonfactual information from the media' is another sub topic that covers aspects like reading nonfactual facts from the media. In this sense, the students need to possess the skills of identifying these kinds of information from the media and various texts.
In this sub topic/lesson, the student should be able to identify nonfactual information from the media.
This stage is about the preparation of the teacher before undertaking the lessons of the particular sub topic. These are all activities, procedures, materials, teaching aids, and games prepared by the teacher for teaching a sub topic:
  1. Putting heads together: Introducing the topic/lesson properly. Organising how students will be able to get to know what is the topic/lesson about. It is where teacher makes sure that students are going to be in his/her train. It includes brainstorming and familiarisation of the topic/lesson with the students. This makes students stay together with the teacher. It is at this stage students can understand what is going to be discussed in the particular topic.
In this sub topic/lesson; the teacher has to guide students to brainstorm on key areas of the sub topic like definition of key concepts, signal words that show nonfactual information, features of nonfactual information, and other related areas about the sub topic.
  1. Preparation of Materials. A teacher has to decide on the teaching/learning materials he/she is going to use.
In this sub topic/lesson, a teacher will have to prepare a variety of materials like TV programmes, radio programmes, newspapers and other media outlets and texts. Teacher's role is to select the most relevant texts or media programmes that can suit the students and the sub topic/lesson.
  1. Target Practice. Show them/Guide them to the practice of the functions of the sub topic. A teacher has to show or guide students to the target practice of the grammatical functions of the sub topic.
In this sub topic/lesson, the teacher will guide students to practice how to identify nonfactual information from the media and texts by pertaining to the following patterns or words and phrases that signal nonfactual information:
I think ....
It is possible.
There is a possibility that....
It might be.
May be...
These are the patterns that prove that the information given is nonfactual because it has no facts and the expressions themselves carry no justification of the information conveyed.
  1. Context-Based Practice. A teacher leads students to the discussion on how the target grammatical functions practised earlier can be applied or integrated into the contexts and situations. The students are guided by the teacher to apply the learnt skills in relevant contexts and situations like school and library.
In this sub topic/lesson, the following contexts or situations are suitable for talking about identifying nonfactual information for students: school, home, newspapers, radio, TV. In these situations, students can find the conversation or discussion even the texts that have nonfactual information.
  1. Vocabulary Building Practice. At this time, teacher discusses with the students on the vocabularies and phrases to apply in the already mentioned contexts and situations.
In this sub topic/lesson, the most commonly applied vocabularies are: broadcast, announcer, channel, mass media as well as other related media. And all those words and phrases that signal the presence of nonfactual information like 'think, assume, perhaps, probably, possibly, and the like.
Guide the students to the full sub topic/lesson procedures, activities and games for better understanding of the sub topic by following these activities:
ACTIVITY ONE: Brainstorming. The teacher has to brainstorm with the students on the sub topic/lesson's aspects through oral questions with answers, pair works, and group discussions of all important concepts to get students on track.
In this activity, the teacher will use already prepared materials to brainstorm with students on the key concepts about the sub topic/lesson. At this stage, the teacher has to introduce students to the meanings of the term 'nonfactual information', features of nonfactual information, signal words that signify nonfactual information, and how to create nonfactual information by using proper language.
Nonfactual information is the kind of information that cannot be practically or scientifically proved. This is the kind of information that is based on personal feelings, emotions and assumptions.
Features of Nonfactual information:
There is no use of data.
There are no facts on what is said.
There is use of immeasurable words.
Signal words for nonfactual information:
Uses of quality and quantity words like best, full, many, much, etc
Examples of Nonfactual Sentences:
1. I have passed English Language test.
2. Asha has bought many oranges.
3. Tanzania got its independence.
4. Mr. Kachele has taught us today.
5. I think many people will attend the conference.
All these sentences do not express facts. They are not factual. They can only be factual (containing facts/data) if they are rewritten or re-expressed as follows:
Examples of Nonfactual Sentences:
1. I have scored 78% for English Language test.
2. Asha has bought fifteen oranges.
3. Tanzania got its independence in 1961.
4. Mr. Kachele has taught English Language For Form IV today.
5. 150 people will attend the conference.
If you look at these sentences you can see that they are factual because they contain some elements or features of facts or data.
In this article, students will be introduced to the practice of identifying nonfactual information from the text and writing texts on nonfactual information.
ACTIVITY TWO: Teacher's Demonstration. Teacher applies his/models or examples so as to bring the topic/lesson and the students into the real or common sense of the topic/lesson.
In this activity, the teacher will demonstrate how to identify nonfactual information from the media like newspapers to the students, and let students learn the ways of picking out nonfactual information from other media like TV, books, magazines, and brochures. The teacher will show students some sample of texts with nonfactual information as following text below:
A Text on Nonfactual information
The Wonders of Lake Tanganyika
My name is Hassan Chuwa. I live at Karema village. My family has been here since a long time ago. I'm still young and I have various tales about our lake, Lake Tanganyika. My grandfather used to tell countless tales about this lake. I have forgotten many of them, but I still remember few of them.
Lake Tanganyika is the biggest and deepest lake in Africa. It is said that it may probably be the deepest lake in the whole world.
But I haven't seen much about this lake apart from tales from my grandfather, and I think this may be true or just an exaggerated story. What I understand is that in our country and Africa, this lake may be the largest and the deepest lake, not for the whole world.
Some tales say this lake is guided by gods and it is possible because some wonders we see are very extraordinary.
There is also a possibility that this is the only lake that has many varieties of fish species in the world. These fish species make this lake the special among many inland lakes. It might be true, but since I was a child, I have been witnessing various kinds of fishes. There are fishes of various shapes, sizes, and colour. This is a proof to me that this lake is special.
May be I'm trying to exaggerate the lake because I have been here since a long time. Perhaps, you can come and see for yourself the wonders of Lake Tanganyika. Probably, you will agree with me. You are welcome!
1)    Identify sentences that express nonfactual information.
2)    Identify sentences that express factual information.
3)    Identify some signal words that are used to express nonfactual information.
4)    Summarise the story in one paragraph by using nonfactual sentences.
5)    Summarise the story in one paragraph by using factual sentences.
ACTIVITY THREE: Students' Demonstration. Showing students how models like that of a teacher can be applied by them. Here students need to be guided on how to use given expressions, structures, vocabulary, and phrases or similar ones.
In this activity, the teacher asks students to form manageable groups. After, forming the groups, the will supply the text to read and students will:
* Study a given text with factual and nonfactual information.
* Point out their opinions about the content of the text (by using given guiding questions about the text)
In order to engage students more on this sub topic, the teacher can prepare a recorded TV show, speech (audio/video) and so on. Students in their groups have to listen to the media. After listening to the selected media, the teacher can ask students to
* Identify nonfactual information from these media and present their group work for class discussion.
ACTIVITY FOUR: More Students’ Practice. Taking/leading students to the real situations or contexts where they can apply what they have mastered. Here speaking, reading or writing activities are involved.
In this activity, the teacher will assign students more reading or listening tasks and ask them to point out facts from these tasks which will be in form of reading newspapers, watching TV show (or a recorded one if there is no live one), brochures, magazines and the like.
ACTIVITY FIVE: Winding up the topic/lesson. Here teachers summarise the topic/lesson by emphasizing the importance of the sub topic/lesson and suggesting other related aspects of the sub topic/lesson.
ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY: As a teacher, what other activity can be applied in this sub topic/lesson? You can always drop your alternative activity or activities to this article so as to improve teaching and learning of ‘O’ Level English Blog! (OLE).
Ask students to discuss how they realise nonfactual information from various contexts like home, street, and school. Ask them when they think that the information they have got is nonfactual and not factual. These are the things that happen daily in every society and students need to know how to identify and analyse them.
A teacher should design an evaluation for students by using appropriate assessment tools like oral questions or assignments so that to see if the student is able to identify nonfactual information from the media. 
Assessment #01: Group work
In groups, ask students to read a particular newspaper article and answer the guiding questions as they identify and analyse nonfactual information
Assessment #02: Pair works
In pairs, students have to read a text on a certain topic. The teacher supplies piece of text to one member of the pair. This pair member should read it to fellow student who in turn should respond by giving out nonfactual information from it.
Assessment #03: Individual work
Produce as many as copies of a certain text and give them to students. The students should individually respond to the set questions.

Note: You can give students more individual works, pair works, and group works to facilitate their interaction and understanding of the sub topic or lesson. As English language teacher you have to give students more works to do. Because language is meant to be largely spoken and written, the teacher should rely on written exercises and notes. Instead students have to learn English language by vigorously exercising individually, in pairs, and in groups.
The students have to be reminded that our communities have all sources of information; factual and nonfactual. They should be taught how important it is to possess the skills of identifying and analysing factual information from various contexts and media. This factual information is not only helpful to them, but even to the whole society.

NOTE: These stages explained above are not necessarily covered in a single lesson of single or double period. Remember that this is the guide for teaching the whole sub topic which has periods ranging from 6 to 20. So, the teacher's task is to divide these stages according to the total number of periods for a particular sub topic.


Title: “Form One English Language Notes with Grammar, Exercises and Key Answers”
Edition: 1st (2022)
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Emmanuel Kachele is a founder and Blogger of KACHELE ONLINE Blog, an educational blog where 'O' Level English - 'OLE', 'A' Level English (ALE) and other related teaching and life skills are shared extensively. This is an online center for all Tanzanian Secondary School English Language students and teachers (Forms I-VI) and all interested English Language learners and teachers worldwide.

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