The Easy & Essential Notes for Teaching and Studying 'Present Tense"

PRESENT TENSE
Tense is the situation where by a verb changes its form and structure to indicate time. For example, the verbs in these two sentences indicate different times, forms and structure:
He plays volleyball every day (Simple present)
They are playing volleyball now (Present continuous)
Present Tense is the kind of tense that changes its verb forms to expresses habitual, ongoing, and completed actions.


FORMS/CATEGORIES OF PRESENT TENSE
There are four (4) categories of Present Tense

  1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
Simple present tense is the kind of tense that expresses general action, habitual acts, actions happening now, and the actions that are always true.

Positive sentences. Structural pattern: Subject + base form of verb
I wash my clothes every Saturday
She cooks delicious food
They play football on Fridays

Negative Sentences. Structural pattern: Subject + does not/do not + base form of the verb.
I do not wash my clothes every Saturday
She does not cook delicious food
They do not play football on Fridays
Negative Sentences Contracted Forms:
I don't wash my clothes every Saturday
She doesn't cook delicious food
They don't play football on Fridays

Note: in the sentences like "She doesn't cook every day" and "Does she cook every day", the base form of the verb does not retain 's'.

Interrogative Sentences. Structural pattern: Auxiliary 'Do'/'Does + subject + base form of the verb.
*Positive Interrogative Sentences. Structural pattern: Auxiliary Do/Does + subject + base form of the verb.
Do I wash my clothes every Saturday?
Does she cook delicious food?
Do they play football on Fridays?
*Negative Interrogative Sentences. Structural pattern: Negative Auxiliary Don't/Doesn't + subject + base form of the verb.
(It preferably use contracted forms)
Don't I wash my clothes?
Doesn't she cook delicious food?
Don't they play football every Saturday?

  1. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Present continuous tense is the kind of tense that expresses the actions that are happening exactly now and the actions that will happen in the future.

Positive Sentences. Structural pattern: Subject + verb to be in present form + present participle.
I am washing my clothes now
She is cooking in the kitchen
They are playing football on the pitch

Negative sentences. Structural pattern: Subject + verb to be in present form + not + present participle.
I am not washing my clothes now
She is not cooking in the kitchen
They are not playing football on the pitch
Negative Sentence Contracted forms 1: Contracting subject and verb to be:
I'm not washing my clothes now
She's not cooking in the kitchen
They're not playing football on the pitch
Negative Sentence Contracted forms 2: Contracting verb to be and not:
You aren't washing my clothes now        
She isn't cooking in the kitchen
They aren't playing football on the pitch

Interrogative Sentences: Structural pattern: Verb to be in present tense + subject + present participle.
*Positive Interrogative Sentences. Structural pattern: Verb to be in present form + subject + present participle.
Am I washing my clothes now?
Is she cooking in the kitchen?
Are they playing football on the pitch?
*Negative Interrogative Sentences. Structural pattern: Verb to be in present form + subject + not + present participle.
Am I not washing my clothes now?
Is she not cooking in the kitchen?
Are they not playing football on the pitch?

  1. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Present perfect tense is the kind of tense that expresses the completed actions, experienced actions, and the continuing situations.
Examples:
Ally has lived in London (Experience)
I have never eaten pizza (Experience)
I have bought a car (Change)
John has broken his arm (Change)
She has grown up (Change)
I have worked here since 2014 (Continuing action/situation)
He has been ill for three days (Continuing situation)
(This tense is use with ‘Since& ‘For)

Positive sentences. Structural pattern: Subject + has/have + past participle.
I have washed my clothes.
She has cooked ugali.
They have played football.

Negative Sentences. Structural pattern: Subject + has/have + past participle.
I have not washed my clothes.
She has not cooked ugali.
They have not played football.
Negative Sentence Contracted forms 1: Contracting subject + auxiliaries 'has/have':
I've not washed my clothes.
She's not cooked ugali.
They've not played football.
Negative Sentence Contracted forms 2: Contracting auxiliaries 'has/have' + not:
I haven't washed my clothes.
She hasn't cooked ugali.
They haven't played football.

Interrogative Sentences. Structural pattern: Auxiliaries 'has/have' + subject + past participle.
*Positive Interrogative Sentences. Structural pattern: Auxiliaries 'has/have' + subject + past participle.
Have I washed my clothes?
Has she cooked ugali?
Have they played football?
*Negative Interrogative Sentences. Structural pattern: Negative Auxiliaries 'hasn't/haven't' + subject + past participle.
Haven't I washed my clothes?
Hasn't she cooked ugali?
Haven't they played football?

  1. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Present perfect continuous tense is the kind of tense that expresses an action that has just stopped or recently stopped (I’m tired because I have been running) or an action that is continuing to happen right now (I have been reading for 3 hours).
(This tens is also used with ‘Since’ and ‘For’)

Positive sentences. Structural pattern: Subject + has/have + been + present participle.
(Often used with: since, for, while and when for marking the duration of time)
I have been washing my clothes.
(I have been washing since morning)
She has been cooking ugali.
(She has been cooking for two hours)
They have been playing football.
(They have been playing since 5 p.m)

Negative Sentences. Structural pattern: Subject + has/have + not + been + present participle.
I have not/haven't been washing my clothes.
(I have not/haven't been washing since morning)
She has not/hasn't been cooking ugali.
(She has not/hasn't been cooking for two hours)
They have not/haven't been playing football.
(They have not/haven't been playing since 5 p.m)

Interrogative Sentences. Structural pattern: Auxiliaries 'has/have' + Subject + been + present participle.
*Positive Interrogative Sentences. Structural pattern: Auxiliaries 'has/have' + subject+ been + present participle.
Have I been washing my clothes?
(Have I been washing since morning?)
Has she been cooking ugali?
(Has she been cooking for two hours?)
Have they been playing football?
(Have they been playing since 5 p.m)
*Negative Interrogative Sentences. Structural pattern: Negative auxiliaries 'hasn't /haven't' + subject + been + present participle.
Haven't I been washing my clothes?
(Haven't I been washing since morning?)
Hasn't she been cooking ugali?
(Hasn't she been cooking for two hours?)
Haven't they been playing football?
(Haven't they been playing since 5 p.m?)

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