THE COMPREHENSIVE TEACHING IDEAS
On the Sub Topic; Participating in debates, dialogues, interviews, impromptu speeches, and discussions- Part 3.
UNIT 3:3: Part 3.
A: INFORMATION OF THE TOPIC:
1. Main Topic 2: USING APPROPRIATE LANGUAGE CONTENT AND STYLE IN SPEAKING.
2. Sub Topic 1: Participating in debates, dialogues, interviews, impromptu speeches, and discussions.
3. Periods per sub topic: 16.
4: Class: Form Three.
The objective of this sub topic is to help students be able to express opinions, ideas, and views orally.
Here, a teacher does not need to write much. He/she only needs to make students speak, and through speaking help them learn how to apply correct English sentences as well as how to connect ideas and learn or master the content being delivered in the subject matter.
This sub topic explores four major aspects:
- Impromptu speeches, and
In this Part 3 of this Sub Topic, the following aspect will be covered:
B: HOW TO TEACH THE TOPIC:
-ACTIVITIES & GAMES TO FACILITATE A LESSON:
Activity 1: GETTING TO KNOW THE DEBATE AND WHY IT IS IMPORTANT.
It is a better idea to explain to the students ‘What is debate’ and ‘How it is conducted’ especially if it is a first time they experience it. If it is known to them, then it is just a matter of keeping a good timetable for it either as a class or school.
To debate is to talk about something at length and in details in order to exchange opinions on various topics in public occasions.
A debate is a discussion in which participants articulate, justify, and clarify their positions on an issue. In this informal debate plan, rebuttals attempt to refute statements made by the opposing side.
Like impromptu speeches, debates should be done regularly so as to increase students’ mastery of language skills and confidence in delivering what they have. English teacher should take these activities very serious because are the ones who perfect other aspects of English grammar. Students may learn a lot about tenses, parts of speech, and composition, but if they do not exercise through speaking, they cannot be able to master them easily.
Activity 2: PROCEDURES OF CONDUCTING DEBATES.
Before The Debate
- Select The Topic
The topic should be taken from what you are teaching. For example, if students are reading one of the plays, then the debate topic should be taken from the play. For instance, if the play is This Time Tomorrow, a topic should be something like; ‘ROAD CONTRACTORS ARE TO BLAME FOR THE UNPLANNED SLUMS IN OUR TOWNS? Other debates topics may include: Should we eradicate slums? Should all the countries of the world be required to join the United Nations?
- Take A Stand
Every debate has two sides, proposing side or the affirmative side and opposing side or the negative side. The affirmative side, “pro”, supports a proposition. The opposing or negative side, “con”, opposes the proposition. The teacher can divide the class into pros and cons, or students may choose their own stance.
- Let The Research Begin
Provide a time for researching a topic. It is a good idea to give students one to three class periods for their research. They should gather the facts to support their views or sides. Three to five resources are recommended. Student should be given the ways on how to present their opinions like use of correct words and phrases such as; “I believe the road contractors are to blame…. In my opinion, town planners are to be blames…. ect.
The model for gathering the facts should look this way:
Source #1: if it is a book, movie, internet material etc.
Source #2: if it is a book, movie, internet material etc.
Source #3: if it is a book, movie, internet material etc.
This model can help students much as they go to the library or ask people about the topic. This develops their interactional skills, interview skills and information gathering skills.
Activity 3: THE DEBATE
- Select A Moderator
The moderator directs the debate and may be the teacher or a student. A student moderator should be able to speak clearly and keep everyone on task in a respectful manner. The moderator formally introduces the debate topic and recognizes students to speak alternating between pro and con.
- Ensuring Equitable Participation
Some debates have main speakers for each side. There may be 5 main speakers for each side. Also the moderator may distribute 5 to 10 index cards to all participants if there are no main speakers chosen or to the rest of the students if there are already chosen main speakers. On the front side of each index card should be written either PRO or CON in large, bold letters. Raising the card will indicate the student’s request to speak. Students will track their participation by making a fold in the card every time they speak. To ensure equitable participation, after three folds, students should not speak until all students have had an opportunity to voice their opinion. After speaking a student may be asked to fold one corner of the card. (The back of the index card will be used in a post-debate activity.)
- Opening And Closing Statements
Students may volunteer to make opening and closing statements, or the teacher may appoint students. Setting the tone for the debate, the students should have a prepared speech (one to three minutes). This is sometimes called Motion Mover.
Also the debate begins with an opening statement from the pro side, followed by a statement from the con side. Opening statements should include each side’s opinion with a brief overview of the supporting evidence.
The debate ends with closing statements from both sides. Again the pro side speaks first followed by the con side. The planned closing statements (one to three minutes) should restate the opinions with strong supporting evidence.
- Debate Do’s
Students need expectations spelled out. It may be a good idea to develop a list of Debate Do’s together as a school or class. The following items should be on the list. This Debate Do’s may be posted in the school hall or classroom and referenced often:
- Be polite and courteous.
- Listen attentively
- Be respectful and supportive of peers.
- Avoid inappropriate noises.
- Speak only when recognized by the moderator.
- Allow others to express their opinions; do not monopolize the debate.
- Use grammatically correct language.
- Speak clearly, slowly, and loud enough to be heard by the audience.
- Speak with passion and excitement.
Activity 4: AFTER THE DEBATE.
When the debate is over, it’s time to review and evaluate it.
To reflect the debate, the index card used to designate pro or con will now be used for debate reflections. Using the back of the card, students will express their reactions to the debate in a media of their choice. Suggestions include summarizing the debate in a paragraph or a poem, designing a cartoon, or creating a graphic that represents their opinion.
This rubric, designed for student success, guides teachers and students in the evaluation process. Extra credit can be awarded to the opening and closing speakers and to students who use more resources. The points earned should be well recorded.
The school or the class can set the requirements as follows:
- Points Earned
- Facts listed
- 3-5 sources documented.
Then, the scores of all sides may be counted to get the winner.
6: CONNECTION: Beyond the Sub Topic. Classroom debates are producers of multi skills to the students. They enable students to work cooperatively, brainstorm ideas, develop vocabulary and read to support an opinion. By conducting research, students are taking notes to summarize, to question, and to clarify information. Students are identifying the main idea, deleting less important information, collapsing, categorizing, and labelling information. Questioning allows students to explain and to explore additional facts for clarification purposes. These comprehension skills are essential for students to become competent readers and writers linking debates directly to the entire curriculum.
Debates allow students to become more proficient in speaking, researching, reading, and writing skills, and they promote reasoning as well as communication skills. Fact-filled and passionate debates provide the incentive for students of all academic and socioeconomic levels to become engaged and to participate in the debate process. In addition, debates, both formal and informal, are a vehicle for students to express their opinions assertively in a respectful manner on a relevant issue or topic.
7: NOTE: NOTE: Just like impromptu speeches, debates are cornerstones of students’ interactive learning. Through debates students can develop various skills as highlighted above. What teacher needs here is just a time to allow his or her students have the control of the class by interacting with the topic of their interests and a teacher to act as a guide of their activities.
Check out how to Study & Teach other Form Three Sub Topics in this Blog!
- Listening for specific information
- Listening for general information
- Participating in debates, dialogues, interviews, impromptu speeches and discussions Part 1
- Participating in debates, dialogues, interviews, impromptu speeches and discussions Part 2
- Participating in debates, dialogues, interviews, impromptu speeches and discussions Part 3 l
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- Identifying main features of different genres Part 2
- Identifying main features of different genres Part 3
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- Writing narrative compositions/essays (not less than 200 words) Part 2
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- Writing descriptive compositions/essays (not less than 200 words)
- Writing argumentative compositions/essays (not less than 200 words)
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Form I Sub topics, at FORM I SYLLABUS TOPICS REVIEW
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Form IV Sub topics, at FORM IV SYLLABUS TOPICS REVIEW
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For Form IV NECTA Examination Sections, check out ELABORATED CSEE NECTA EXAMINATION SECTIONS