STUDY & TEACH: 'Identifying Factual Information From the Media' in Form Two

Welcome to UNIT 11. 2.
PREVIOUSLY:  In Unit 11.1; we discussed about simple ways of studying and teaching the sub topic “Expressing family relations” in Form One.

In This Unit 11.2; we will discuss how to study and teach the sub topic “Identifying factual information from the media” in Form Two.

TOPIC’S INFORMATION
Main Topic: ANALYSING INFORMATION FROM THE MEDIA
Sub topic: Identifying factual information from the media
Periods per sub topic: 14
Class: Form Two.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SUB TOPIC.
Distinguishing facts from opinions is the reading that involves identification of facts from texts by separating them from opinions. Facts are real information or data that can be approved. But opinions are unapproved information that are based on subjective judgment. Most of texts involve both facts and opinions. The students are therefore required to read texts and orally or in written form identify facts from opinions.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON.
By the end of this sub topic, the student should be able to identify facts from the media. They should be able to read various texts and pick out the factual information from these texts by using the skills they will have learnt. They will also be able to use various information sources apart from texts to pick out factual information.

TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCEDURES, ACTIVITIES & GAMES

  1. Step One: Brainstorming and understanding the meaning of ‘information’, ‘facts’, factual’, and ‘factual’.
The teacher brainstorms with students on these terms so that the students can understand what they are going to cover in the particular topic. Fact, by definition, is a statement that can be proved if it is true or false. The students should be reminded that not all printed, televised, or recorded materials are factual. Any given facts can either be true or false.

  1. Step Two: How to prove that the particular information from the media is factual.
Students should be guided by the teacher on how to identify the factual information from the media. A teacher should guide the students to the understanding of the skills of identifying this factual information from the media.
Examples of Factual Information:
The words, phrases, and items that can be identified in the text with factual information:
  • Statistics
  • Numbers
  • Names
  • Dates
  • Places
  • Times
  • Percentages


A student can prove if the information in the media is factual by asking himself/herself the following questions:
Can I prove this information?
Is the source of this information reliable or scientific proved?
Can I check it in a reference book?
All in all, factual information does not include any individual feelings or emotions.

  1. Step Three: Introducing students to some examples of facts from a text or media.  After learning some processes, skills and ways of identifying from various texts or media, now a teacher can introduce students to the some examples of facts from a text or media:
  • At our school, 23 students joined ‘A’ Level Studies.
  • The President leaves for Mozambique tomorrow.
  • Our school has 650 students.
  • Fifty children were born on Christmas day.
  • I was the fifth student in my last exam.
  • At our school, more than 60% are from the villages.
  • 50% of patients in hospitals are HIV positive.


Discuss with the students the vocabularies from common life aspects that will be commonly applied in this sub topic. Most vocabularies to be used are those contexts- related such as HIV/AIDS, gender, environment, child labour, President, etc.

  1. Step Four: Provide a text and allow students to identify facts from it.
As a teacher, write a text on the blackboard and allow students to identify facts from it.

Ask the students to read the following passage.

Tanzania: The Home of Mt. Kilimanjaro.
Tanzania is a country that is located in Eastern Africa. It is the home of Africa’s highest mountain peak, Mount Kilimanjaro. In the East, it is bordered by an Indian Ocean. The country has over 45 million people. More than 90% of the Tanzanians speak Kiswahili, their national language. This country got its independence in 1961 with Mwalimu Julius Nyerere as the first Prime Minister and the President of the nation. He is famously referred to as ‘Baba wa Taifa’ (Father of the Nation).

Comprehension Questions
After the text, students should now identify facts from the text in oral and written form. Or a teacher can provide some guiding questions like these below:

When did Tanzania get independence?
How many Tanzanians speak Kiswahili?
What is the current population of the country?
The country is bordered by ____________ in the East.
What is the nickname of the country?

  1. Step Five: Supply various texts in groups.
To provide students with various texts on various topics. Newspapers in English language can be used because they contain various facts. They can be in groups and the texts being given in groups for discussion.

After reading the given texts, the teacher should guide students to write down facts found in selected texts. A teacher may set a limit to a number of facts they should provide per each text of a particular group.

The groups should now present the facts they have identified before the class for discussion and for other students to give their opinions. The teacher to lead this type of class discussion and guide students to the conclusion.

  1. Step Six: Application of facts in various media.
A teacher to play a media he/she has chosen. It may be an audio media or video media. Then, students in groups can point out facts from the media the teacher has played for them. The other media to be applied can be newspapers, brochures, and magazines. A teacher is insisted to follow the appropriate steps of presenting a media.

A teacher can play a video or audio speech or even news bulletin and allow students to identify the facts from such media sources.


REFLECTION.
Ask students to reflect on the sub topic. Ask them according to what they have learnt where they can apply these reading and presentation skills. Guide them to discuss how they read news in the newspapers and they that can find out facts and opinions in them.

ASSESSMENT.
Use a tape record, video or TV to let them listen the news in English, then has them form groups to write down the facts and opinions they have listened from the news.
Also give them newspapers in English and assign them to read and find out facts and opinions in the articles or news they have read.

SUMMARY/CONCLUSION.
The world we live in is not only made of facts only. The world is also full of opinions. Thus, it is important to learn these skills of identifying facts from various societal and international media. Without having these skills, people may be misled or misinformed. Good readers use facts to determine if what they are reading is valid or logically correct. The students should be encouraged to develop abilities to read between and beyond the lines. This is critical reading that can helps student to have high level of comprehension and problem solving skills. This type of reading also improves the students’ ability to analyse and evaluate what is read and ability to distinguish the facts from the opinions.


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