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Saturday, 2 September 2017

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Welcome to UNIT 14.2
PREVIOUSLY: In Unit 14.1, we covered ‘Describing physical appearance’ in Form One.
                                                                    
IN THIS UNIT 14.2, we will discuss how to teach the sub topic ‘Talking about games’ in Form Two.

TOPIC’S INFORMATION
Main Topic: TALKING ABOUT CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
Sub Topic: Talking about games
Periods per sub topic: 10
Class: Form Two

DESCRIPTION OF THE SUB TOPIC
Every child plays games; from hide and seek to professional games like football. And when a child plays, he/she enjoys his/her age of childhood, becomes motivated, and some learning is acquired at the same time. Games are part and parcel of teaching and learning process.
In this sub topic/lesson, students are reminded of their childhood local games and they learn how to play other professional games like football, netball, handball, basketball, and volleyball. The teacher's role is to motivate and engage his/her students into the active interaction in the particular games.


SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THE SUB TOPIC/LESSON
By the end of this sub topic/lesson, the student should be able to explain how a game familiar to him/her is played. These games are not only explained, but also students have to interact with these games by playing with the teacher and with other students as well.

  1. TEACHER PREPARATION AND MATERIALS
This stage is about the preparation of the teacher before undertaking the lessons of the particular sub topic. These are all activities, procedures, materials, teaching aids, and games prepared by the teacher for teaching a sub topic:

  1. Putting heads together: Introducing the topic/lesson properly. Organising how students will be able to get to know what is the topic/lesson about. It is where teacher makes sure that students are going to be in his/her train. It includes brainstorming and familiarisation of the topic/lesson with the students.
This makes students stay together with the teacher. It is at this stage students can understand what is going to be discussed in the particular topic.

In this sub topic/lesson; the teacher guides students to brainstorm on various local games the students play. A teacher can use various pictures about the games and discuss how particular games are played.

  1. Preparation of Materials.  A teacher has to decide on the teaching/learning materials he/she is going to use.
In this sub topic/lesson: Various texts on different games and how they are played will be required in this sub topic/lesson.

  1. Target Practice. Show them/Guide them to the practice of the functions of the sub topic. A teacher has to show or guide students to the target practice of the grammatical functions of the sub topic.
In this sub topic/lesson: teacher prepares some guiding sentence patterns to students. These sentences serve as references for students so that they form correct sentences. Some examples of descriptive sentences are:
The spectators stoned the referee;
The match was very thrilling;
The team arrived late;
The referee was fair;
The game was very boring.

  1. Context-Based Practice: A teacher leads students to the discussion on how the target grammatical functions practised earlier can be applied or integrated into the contexts and situations. The students are guided by the teacher to apply the learnt skills in relevant contexts and situations like school and library.
In this sub topic/lesson: In this context, the teacher has to explore and guide students to describe things and people at the School, in the street, or at home. These settings or contexts are real experiences for students. A teacher is not advised to ask students to describe things that are not familiar to them. They should start with what they know.

The following settings and situations can be applied by the teacher: School, festivals, games, competition, village, street, and playground. These ones will make students feel the sub topic/lesson. They experience what is to be done by practice and within the real environments.

  1. Vocabulary Building Practice: At this time, teacher discusses with the students on the vocabularies and phrases to apply in the already mentioned contexts and situations.

In this sub topic/lesson: There may be a long vocabulary list of words, phrases, and expressions, but here are some of them: Football, netball, basketball, volleyball, wrestling, win, javelin.

  1. TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCEDURES, ACTIVITIES AND GAMES
Guide the students to the full sub topic/lesson procedures, activities and games for the better understanding of the sub topic by following these activities:

Activity One: Introduction. In this first activity, teacher will try to make students discuss the common or local games they know and list them. The teacher may ask students to be in pairs or groups so that they can openly share what games are common to them and make list of such games. Allow them to be free to discuss and list even local traditional games! This will not only them to understand these games but also they will help students to get interacted socially.

Activity Two: Demonstration of Teacher’s Model. By using teacher's model or various texts, the teacher should guide students to read a text on how a certain game is played. These texts are to be carefully prepared and written because they include some procedures on how the particular game is played. When the teacher supervises this reading activity, he/she can give some comprehension questions to the students to check their understanding of the text in general and how the particular game is played in particular.

The Text
The Football Game
A football game is one of the most popular games in the world. It has fans almost in every part of the world and of any age. However, some people do not know how it is played especially those who are least interested or not interested in football at all. Here is some explanation on how it is played. The football is played by two contesting teams, each team with eleven players. The coaches of the team are not included; they watch the game from outside the football pitch. These eleven players are: Goalkeeper, defenders, midfielders, wingers, forwards, and strikers. The captain of the team is chosen among these eleven players. There are also substitutes which replace other players in case those playing in the pitch for the moment are tired, sent off, or get injured. The fans always sit in the stands to watch the game. There are four refereeing officials; the people responsible for supervising the whole game. They are; Referee, linesman 1, linesman 2, and commissar who records events and other details of the game.

The rules of football are not known by many people both fans and those who are not the fans. The Football Association, the body that coordinates the football all over the world recognise the following 17 rules of football, and they expect all football stakeholders to implement them. They are:
(1)   The size of the playground.
(2)   The size of the ball.
(3)   The number of players.
(4)   Player’s Equipment.
(5)   Referees.
(6)   Linesmen and Lineswomen.
(7)   Duration of the game.
(8)   Start of Play: Kick Off and Drop Ball
(9)   Ball In and Ball Out of Play.
(10)                       Method of Scoring.
(11)                       Offside.
(12)                       Fouls and Misconduct.
(13)                       Free Kick.
(14)                       Penalty Kick.
(15)                       Throw-in.
(16)                       Goal Kick.
(17)                       Corner Kick.

These 17 football rules are learnt and interpreted by official referees, linesmen and lineswomen, coaches, players, fans, and other people.

The football game is very important to the people. First, it is an entertainment for people. People go to stadiums to watch the games as part of entertainment. Second, football games promote unity and friendship among the people of a certain area and at international level. When one team visits another team in a foreign country, the friendship is promoted. Third, football is the source of income generations.

Comprehension Questions
  • What is football?
  • What is the difference between football and soccer?
  • How many players each team should have?
  • How many teams play in the football pitch________?
  • Is football a popular game? Why?
  • According to you, what are most difficult Football rules?
  • What happens when football rules are not observed?

True/False Questions
  • Referee stays out of the pitch to supervise the game well....
  • Coach is allowed to enter in the play any time...
  • Linesmen supervise the game outside the pitch...
  • A player can use his/her hands when the leg fail to reach the ball...
  • Corner kicks are taken from the middle of the pitch...
Activity Three: Students’ Participation. Under this activity, students have to explain how the game they have read about is played. Students are guided by the teacher to select a game of their preference and explain orally and in writing how it is played. It is better if the teacher asks students to form groups and each group should select its own game.

After selecting the game of their preference in groups, the teacher guides each group to select the speakers who will present how the game is played orally in front of others. This presentation will be carried out after conducting the group discussions on how the game of their choice is played.

Then, teacher will also have to guide students to write in groups they have formed to write how the game of their choice is played. The will give his/her students some guidelines on how to write the procedures of playing a game of their choice. Below are some of these guidelines:
  • Definition of the game.
  • History of the game, short explanation on how it started. If there is no record, students should say so.
  • Types of the game if there are any.
  • Requirements of the game: Eg. Pitch, players, tools, etc.
  • How the particular game is played (procedures/steps).
  • Features of the game.
  • Importance of the game to the people.

For example
How to Play Jumping Rope Game
  • This game is the game that is played when some jumps above the rope that is being moved by others.
  • This game has been played since ages.
  • There are two types of this game.
(1) One-person jumping rope, and
(2) Three people jumping rope.
  • The requirements of this game are: People (Jumpers) and a rope.
  • This game is played by three people. Two people hold the rope and move it while the player jumps at the centre to jump the moving rope. When this player is caught by the rope, the he/she fails and he/she takes the rope while another player goes in to jump.
  • The game is famously played by children and sometimes adult.
  • This game is important for body exercise and having fun together.

Additional Activity: As a teacher, what other activity can be applied in this sub topic/lesson? You can always drop your alternative activity or activities to this article so as to improve teaching and learning of O Level English (OLE).

GRAMMAR PRACTICE:
Language of sports
Language of sports mostly uses simple present tense verb forms and action verbs to relate the events happening in the field or pitch. A teacher can play a video that has sport commentaries like football and allow students to identify simple present verb forms and action verbs or give them texts on sports commentaries and give them the same task.
For example, The Football Sports Commentaries.
“A lovely goal from the Blues as Ba does well to bring down a long ball before laying it off to Oscar, who finds the bottom corner from the edge of the box”
By ESPN Staff, October 6, 2013 at http://en.espn.co.uk/football/sport/story/245041.html

One thing for students to remember is that most of the football or any sports commentaries is narrated in simple present just like in above text.

REFLECTION
Ask students to discuss how they play various local games.
Allow students to collect various pictures of various games. They can take them from newspapers, magazines or even family or school photos. They should properly cut them, and then put them in front of the class. Ask students in pairs or group to describe them.

ASSESSMENT
The teacher should use relevant assessment tools like oral questions, drills, games, exercises, pair works, group works, and assignments so that to check if a student is able to explain how a game he/she is familiar to is played.

Other Assessments:
Assessment #01: Writing a sport text commentary.
Ask students to be in pairs and write a commentary text of two paragraphs about any football match they watched or imagine one.

Assessment #02: Writing a sport text commentary from the live play.
If possible, take students to the football match, mostly when the School team is playing against another team. Ask them to write the sport commentary and submit it to you on the next lesson.

Assessment #03: Practising Live Match Commentary.
Ask students to be the commentators of a live match either on TV, Video recorded match, or on the football ground.

SUMMARY/CONCLUSION
Summarise the sub topic/lesson by emphasizing students to participate in various traditional and professional games. Discuss with them that these games are important for improving body health and active mind. Apart from that, students are encouraged to participate in various games because they are the sources of employment. Various athletes make a living through their excellence in the games they play.
These games also promote culture and unity.

NOTE: These stages explained above are not necessarily covered in a single lesson of single or double period. Remember that this is the guide for teaching any sub topic which may have periods ranging from 6 to 20. So, the teacher's task is to divide these stages according to the total number of periods for a particular sub topic.

WHAT IS YOUR OPINION?
This article is about how to study and teach "Talking about games" in Form Two. As a student or teacher, what is your opinion on how to study and teach this sub topic/lesson?
Your opinion is worth and I believe that it can make these materials better for our own consumption.
You are Welcome!

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