How to Teach "Expressing point of view" in Form Two

Welcome to UNIT 17.3

PREVIOUSLY: In Unit 17.2, we discussed about the various ways of teaching the sub topic “Expressing past activities" in Form One.                             

IN THIS UNIT 17.3, we will cover the sub topic “Expressing point of view” in Form Two.

TOPIC’S INFORMATION
Main Topic: EXPRESSING OPINIONS
Sub Topic: Expressing point of view
Periods per sub topic: 16
Class: Form Two

DESCRIPTION OF THE SUB TOPIC
Every human being takes his stance or side on something or a certain argument. This is his or her point of view on that particular thing. Our life is filled with various points of views; favourable and unfavourable ones or opposing and proposing point of views. During argument over a certain point of view, there may be two sides; the side that argue for and the other side that argue against. This is the normal stuff, and students need to have the skills of arguing point of views on various sides they may be.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THE LESSON
In this sub topic/lesson, the student should be able to participate in a debate on familiar issues.

  1. TEACHER’S PREPARATION STAGE
This stage is about the preparation of the teacher before undertaking the lessons of the particular sub topic. These are all activities, procedures, materials, teaching aids, and games prepared by the teacher for teaching a sub topic:

  1. Putting heads together: Introducing the topic/lesson properly. Organising how students will be able to get to know what is the topic/lesson about. It is where teacher makes sure that students are going to be in his/her train. It includes brainstorming and familiarisation of the topic/lesson with the students.
This makes students stay together with the teacher. It is at this stage students can understand what is going to be discussed in the particular topic.
In this sub topic/lesson, the teacher will brainstorm with students on how they can defend what they believe is true and which ways they should use. Hence, the teacher will guide students to various oral questions so that they understand the sub topic/lesson at first. Some oral questions can be:
  • How do you defend your point in group discussion?
  • How do you defend a point in a debate?
  • Charcoal is better than a gas. Argue for against the statement.

All these are the questions which should be responded orally. When they are answered, the students can now have the full picture of what is the sub topic/lesson about.

  1. Preparation of Materials. A teacher has to decide on the teaching/learning materials he/she is going to use.
In this sub topic/lesson, the teacher will have to prepare extracts and pictures for students practice how express their point of views. For example, apart from extracts, a teacher may display a picture of a prevent school girl and ask students to give out their point of views. The picture may be taken from newspapers or magazines.

  1. Target Practice. Show them/Guide them to the practice of the functions of the sub topic. A teacher has to show or guide students to the target practice of the grammatical functions of the sub topic.
In this sub topic/lesson, the teacher guides students to the practice of target grammatical patterns and structures. The most commonly used expressions when expressing point of views are:
  • My point of view on this is...
  • My point of view is....
  • I strongly oppose your point of view...
  • I agree with your view, but...
  • I think.....
  • Although....
  • Not only ....but also
  • In addition....
  • I may agree with you, however....
  • ......Because.....
  • The previous speaker....
  • According to the previous speaker,....
  • I support....
  • I do not support.... I oppose...
  • I am for....
  • I am against.....

  1. Context-Based Practice. A teacher leads students to the discussion on how the target grammatical functions practised earlier can be applied or integrated into the contexts and situations. The students are guided by the teacher to apply the learnt skills in relevant contexts and situations like school and library.
In this sub topic/lesson, the teacher and students will discuss the situations and contexts in which they can express or find expression of point of views. Obviously, students can express their point of views at school and classroom in the activities like morning talks, class debates, and school debates.

  1. Vocabulary Building Practice. At this time, teacher discusses with the students on the vocabularies and phrases to apply in the already mentioned contexts and situations.
In this sub topic/lesson: The most commonly applied vocabularies are: oppose, propose, opinion, idea, views, arguments, debate, debater, motion, against, for, agree, disagree

  1. TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCEDURES, ACTIVITIES AND GAMES
Guide the students to the full sub topic/ lesson procedures, activities and games for better understanding of the sub topic by following these activities:

ACTIVITY ONE: Brainstorming the sub topic/lesson through oral questions with answers, pair works, and group discussions of all important concepts to get students on track.
In this activity, the teacher uses his/her prepared materials to brainstorm with the students. The teacher should properly arrange how to open the sub topic/lesson so as students can fully take control of the sub topic from the beginning to the end. The good beginning is always fundamental.

ACTIVITY TWO: Teacher's application of his/models or examples so as to bring the topic/lesson and the students into the real or common sense of the topic/lesson.
In this activity, the teacher guides students to learn how the teacher himself/herself can express his/her view on something. Students should pay attention to what teacher says or read.
The teacher should demonstrate how he/she can express his/her point of views on something. A teacher should show his/her experiences and models. Some of them are:
Teacher's Model
Students are to blame for truancy
In my point of view, students become truants when they do not attend at school. I blame students for some reasons; however, they are not the only to blame. As for me I also blame their parents or guardians. I blame them because they take their children to shamba and other production during school days. Some parents and guardians do not give their children enough requirements, hence prompting them to be truants.
Therefore, some students may like the school, but there are students who like the school and they are only discouraged by the actions of their parents and guardians.

ACTIVITY THREE: Showing students how models like that of a teacher can be applied by them. Here students need to be guided on how to use given expressions, structures, vocabulary, and phrases or similar ones.
In this activity, the teacher has to select an appropriate extract for students. After selecting the appropriate extracts for students to read, the will have the task of guiding them to read the selected extract about bride price, HIV/AIDS or environmental issues.
After reading the selected extract, the teacher should ask students the oral comprehension questions about the extract they have read. After guiding oral questions, the teacher can ask students other questions which they can record in their exercise books.

The Extract
Ask the students to read the following text and respond to the questions.
Forest Fire
The cases of outbreak of forest fire have been a common problem in our society. Often, the forests are burned but no one is held responsible for this crime. In certain societies, burning or causing forest fire is a common habit. In a strange circumstance, some people cause fire outbreak only to see if the fire he/she has started will burn the large area. Not only that, but also other people have been causing fire for the purpose of hunting. All these are the barbaric reasons that lead to the destruction of our forests. In addition to these causes, there is also fire accidents in which the fire outbreak happens because of various faults. For instance, the faulty electricity can cause fire as well as mishandled electrical objects at homes or in factories. Forest fire has many effects in our societies. Some of them are: Loss of properties, death of people, permanent injuries to the people, underdevelopment, separation of family, loss of biodiversity, and fall of tourism.
I think if people are educated about how to contain fire at their homes in at work places, the cases and effects of fire can be reduced to some extent.

Comprehension questions
  1. What can be the alternative title of the text?
  2. Mention two barbaric reasons for burning forests in some societies
  3. Mention other causes of forest fire.
  4. Mention two ways that can be used to contain forest fire.
  5. Mention any five effects of forest fire.

The comprehension questions will help the teacher assess students' understanding of the material and improve students' understanding of the materials themselves.

ACTIVITY FOUR: Taking/leading students to the real situations or contexts where they can apply what they have mastered. Here speaking, reading or writing activities are involved.

In this activity, the will arrange students in groups to debate on a selected issue. This may be a planned debate which can involve the class or be inter class debate in which students of both sides are going to share the experiences and apply their skills learnt, that is, the skills of expressing point of views on something in front of others. The chosen topic may be like this below:
"Students are to blame for truancy"
The few students can be chosen by the teacher to help him/her plan and prepare such debate. When it is prepared, the debate should take necessary stages of preparation and the nature or organization of the participants involved.

ACTIVITY FIVE: Winding up the topic/lesson. Here teachers summarise the topic/lesson by emphasizing the importance of the sub topic/lesson and suggesting other related aspects of the sub topic/lesson.

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITY: As a teacher, what other activity can be applied in this sub topic/lesson? You can always drop your alternative activity or activities to this article so as to improve teaching and learning of ‘O’ Level English Blog! (OLE).

GRAMMAR PRACTICE:
Expressing point of view
REFLECTION
Ask students to think about what they do to convince others to agree with what they believe is true. Students should think about the time they need to convince others to agree with them.

ASSESSMENT
A teacher should design an evaluation for students by using appropriate assessment tools like oral questions or assignments so that to see if the student is able to participate in a debate on familiar issues.

ASSESSMENTS
Assessment #01: Group work.
Write certain statement on the board, and ask students to form groups, then guide them to decide on the side they are going to take. They should brainstorm and discuss their point of views regarding the statement on the board, after that they should present before the class.
Propose a motion like "Village Schools are settled than urban schools". Ask the class to form two sides, or divide it more conveniently.

Assessment #02: Pair works
Ask students to be in pairs. Write a controversial statement on the board like "Money is everything in this world". Ask each student in pair to take a different side. Allow the pairs to brainstorm, each one independently. Allow members of each pair to stand up and challenge one another.

Assessment #03: Individual work.
Here the teacher can now give students various individual tasks to individually test their understanding. For example:
Write an essay to argue for or against the motion 'Girls should wear like boys'.
Assume you are in a debate with a motion 'Mother is good family caretaker than father', whichever side you are, what will you say? Write a speech debate of not less than 100 words.

Note: You can give students more individual works, pair works, and group works to facilitate their interaction and understanding of the sub topic or lesson. As English language teacher you have to give students more works to do. Because language is meant to be largely spoken and written, the teacher should rely on written exercises and notes. Instead students have to learn English language by vigorously exercising individually, in pairs, and in groups.

SUMMARY/CONCLUSION
Sum up a sub topic/lesson with the word of encouragement to students. Tell them the importance of possessing skills of expressing various points of views confidently. Encourage them that their life at school and after school will be dominated by the incidents of expressing their point of views, and thus they need to be thoroughly equipped with these special skills.

NOTE: These stages explained above are not necessarily covered in a single lesson of single or double period. Remember that this is the guide for teaching the whole sub topic which has periods ranging from 6 to 20. So, the teacher's task is to divide these stages according to the total number of periods for a particular sub topic.

WHAT IS YOUR OPINION?
This article is about how to study and teach "Expressing point of view" in Form Two. As a student or teacher, what is your opinion on how to study and teach this sub topic/lesson?
Your opinion is worth and I believe that it can make these materials better for our own consumption.

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