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Tuesday, 5 December 2017

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INTRODUCTION
To write well in English Language and literature, students and other language and literature learners have to master how to put sentences together. Students have to exercise their writing skills in their exercise books, diaries and other note taking tools. By mastering various grammatical sentence structures, the students and other learners will keep themselves on the right track of professionalism as far as language and literature are concerned. In this article, we will discuss four kinds of sentences by structure in English Language.
For other articles about English sentences, visit the following:
KINDS OF SENTENCES BY STRUCTURE
There are four kinds of sentence by considering the structure. These are:
 1.      Simple sentence
This sentence structure consists of one independent clause only (Remember: Clause is a group of words that contain a subject and a verb plus other information)
Examples:
John is reading a book.
Asha is a good student.
All these two sentences are independent because each one can stand alone, that is, it can convey a complete thought by itself)
(See also other types of clauses)
2.     Compound Sentence
This sentence structure contains two or more independent clauses that are joined together. Clauses in compound sentences are joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction: FAN BOYS: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, and So.

Some Meanings and Examples of FANBOYS:
For (conj.) = since/because/seeing that. I need rain boots for it is raining. I agree with you for you are a good friend.
And: Juma is a carpenter and Asha is a nurse. We will study and our teacher will prepare lessons for us.
Nor (conj.) it’s used negatively to introduce the second member in the series. Although it is often used with ‘neither’, it can also be used alone as in: She won’t talk to you nor to me. They won’t wait for you, nor for anybody.
But: Some shoes are cheap but they are not durable.
Or: You should study hard, or you will fail exams.
Yet (conj.) =though/still. You can study hard, yet you should have a time to revise. It is raining, yet we played the match.
So (conj.) =in order that/with the result that. It is raining, so we should stay home. Write carefully, so you don’t make mistake.

Also sentences or clauses are joined by a semicolon and conjunctive adverbs such as: therefore, however, moreover, nevertheless, consequently, etc. For examples:
Our team lost; however, we played well.
It was raining; therefore, no one went to the farm.
Chameleons are slow; nevertheless, they hunt steadily.
All these sentences are independent and they are just joined by conjunctive adverbs: 'It was raining' and 'no one went to the farm' are all independent clauses joined together by conjunctive adverb 'therefore'.
 3.      Complex Sentence
This is sentence structure that contains an independent clause and one or more dependent/subordinate clauses. These sentences are joined by subordinators or subordinating conjunctions such as: although, however, even though, in spite of, despite, notwithstanding, etc.
Examples:
Although it was raining, we went to the farm.
Notwithstanding the bad roads, our bus driver drove well.
Despite the rain, we played football.

In these sentences or clauses, 'we went to the farm' is an independent clause. 'Although it was raining' is a dependent or subordinate clause that can't stand alone and it needs an independent clause to be able to bring the sense.
Most dependent clauses are introduced or contain a subordinate word/subordinator.
 4.      Compound-Complex Sentence
This sentence structure consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. Compound - complex is simply a compound sentence with a subordinate clause. For example:
Although they live at Kapalamsenga village, Asha studies at Karema Secondary School and John is Ikola Secondary School student.
We won the match although we had injured players and some players were I'll.

THE TEXT
Ask the student to read the following passage and ask them:
  • To identify any five simple sentences
  • To identify any compound sentences
  • To identify any complex sentences
  • To identify any compound – complex sentences
Despite the fact that discipline is always a cornerstone to the students' success at school, colleges, or universities, commitment to the students' goals is important as well. Whether you agree or not, your good discipline is your only way to reach your goals. Despite being intelligent, a student who lacks discipline will make no impact when it comes to studies. I like to advise students that there is a certain point in the life of a person when someone should sacrifice for the better future. One of those points in life is education. The young people like you should sacrifice for your better future through studying hard. Don't ask yourself foolish questions like; will mere ownership of the phone get me expelled from school? How can fighting with my enemies at school get me suspended? Notwithstanding the strength you have, you are always obliged to obey the school rules and regulations. And in order to accomplish your studies, your good discipline is vital. Ask yourself questions: Is it really necessary to have the phone? Is it necessary to fight? Or do I really have the time to waste breaking school rules and regulations? Although you may make various mistakes at school, you will still have the chance to learn from your mistakes and swear not to repeat the same mistakes for one more time. As a student, you have to spend your time studying or refreshing your minds in various acceptable activities like sports and games. Teachers and students should cooperatively work together. So, students should make sure they follow teacher’s guidance properly. Though teachers teach you, you and your parents, should work cooperatively. You can consult them any time before deciding on the things that can retard your progress at school. Being a student does not free you from committing human mistakes, but it is possible to refrain from doing bad things at school for the sake of your future. Although teachers are your guides at school, you still need your own commitment to school rules and laws. Stop misbehaving! Stay calm and committed. Your success is at your own hands. You may choose to succeed or fail by your own decisions.

GROUP QUESTIONS
Ask students to form four groups. Each group should identify and discuss examples of all kinds of sentences they have found in the passage. The answers of each group should be presented before the class and the class should ask questions from the presenting group in case they need more clarification on the presented answers.

Note: A teacher can use any text that can be appropriate and use it to test students on identifying the particular sentence structures. The teacher should scan the text first to see if it contains the right or target grammatical practice for students. It may be a passage from the newspapers, and online content, or any excerpt of the book.

CONCLUSION
The writing process starts when you start thinking about writing. You think about the subject, about the words, about the kind of writing (description, composition, letter, e-mail, report, essay), about the best way to put the words together.

For more on how to study & teach English Language topics, visit the following class links:

For 'O' Level's CSE Examination Sections, visit the following section links:

Resources
Microsoft Encarta Dictionaries 2009 © 1993 – 2008 Microsoft Corporation.
“The Definition of So.” www.dictionary.com. N.P., 2017. Web. 4 Dec. 2017.
“The Definition of Yet.” www.dictionary.com. N.P., 2017. Web. 4 Dec. 2017.
“The Definition of Nor.” www.dictionary.com. N.P., 2017. Web. 4 Dec. 2017.

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