Analysing a literary work involves some important steps. First, you tackle a literary work by reading it once for comprehension, and then once you are steady on your feet with comprehension, you can move on to interpretation.
STEPS OF ANALYSING A NOVEL
When analyzing a fiction like a novel, you should consider the following steps:
In this comprehension step, you should read a literary work once to figure out how the story's basic parts fit together. Comprehension includes the basic understanding of:
The reader should read a literary text to know the setting of the piece.
Here the reader should read the literary text for the first time to identify the characters in the piece.
The reader should read the text for an easy understanding of the flow of the events in the piece.
STEP 2: CLOSE READING AND INTERPRETATION
In this stage, the reader begins to explore the setting, characters, and plot more deeply while considering author's style and language as follows:
(1) Setting Analysis
Here the reader gives more detailed information on the setting of the piece; place, time, social environments, and physical environments. More vivid places, periods and environments are identified.
(2) Character Analysis
Here the reader gives more details on the characters. And this leads to the full understanding of the actions and personalities of the characters of the piece.
(3) Plot Analysis
Again, here the reader gives more details on the plot of the piece. He/she figure out more about the essential elements of the plot like; exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution.
(4) Author Style and Language Analysis
This is a longer section where the reader examines various aspects of style and language as well as other literary devices. In this stage, the reader examines the following aspects:
-Point of view
(5) Content Analysis:
Here the reader analyses the following:
These are not only techniques for analysing novels. Other analysis/interpretation techniques are out there which are worth applying as well. Whatever analysis techniques you can use, make sure you meet the fuller appreciation which fulfils your personal as well as academic purposes of analysis.
LE TEST 10: HOW TO ANALYSE A NOVEL
 Dichotomise between:
(a) Character and author
(b) Reading and analysis
(c) Setting and plot
(d) Style and point of view
(e) Message and lesson
(f) Relevance and philosophy
 Explain any five steps of flying the novel.
 In one paragraph, explain the relevance of the story 'Hawa the Bus Driver.'
 In one paragraph, explain the message and the lesson you learnt in the story 'Mabala the Farmer."
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