Wednesday, 7 September 2022

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Present perfect tense is the kind of tense that expresses the completed actions, experienced actions, and the continuing situations. 


  • Ally has lived in London (Experience) 
  • I have never eaten pizza (Experience) 
  • I have bought a car (Change) 
  • John has broken his arm (Change) 
  • She has grown up (Change) 
  • I have worked here since 2014 (Continuing action/situation) 
  • He has been ill for three days (Continuing situation) 

(This tense is use with ‘Since’ & ‘For’) 


A. Positive sentences

Structural pattern: Subject + has/have + past participle:* 


  • I have washed my clothes. 
  • She has cooked ugali. 
  • They have played football. 


B. Negative Sentences

Structural pattern: Subject + has/have + past participle:


  • I have not washed my clothes. 
  • She has not cooked ugali. 
  • They have not played football. 

Negative Sentence Contracted forms:

1: Contracting subject + auxiliaries 'has/have': 


  • *I've* not washed my clothes. 
  • *She's* not cooked ugali. 
  • *They've* not played football. 

Negative Sentence Contracted forms: 

2: Contracting auxiliaries 'has/have' + not:


  • I *haven't* washed my clothes. 
  • She *hasn't* cooked ugali. 
  • They *haven't* played football. 


C. Interrogative Sentences

Structural pattern: Auxiliaries 'has/have' + subject + past participle:

(a) Positive Interrogative Sentences 

Structural pattern: Auxiliaries 'has/have' + subject + past participle:


  • Have I washed my clothes? 
  • Has she cooked ugali? 
  • Have they played football? 

(b) Negative Interrogative Sentences

Structural pattern: Negative Auxiliaries 'hasn't/haven't' + subject + past participle:


  • Haven't I washed my clothes? 
  • Hasn't she cooked ugali? 
  • Haven't they played football? 



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