DEFINITIONS & EXAMPLES
A conjunction is a part of speech that joins words, phrases, and clauses. Conjunctions are like bridges that connect ideas.
Examples of conjunctions are: and, or, but, although.
Sentence Examples of Conjunctions:
(1) Boss and his employees work together.
(2) Joshua or John can take a free kick.
(3) I will go but you will stay.
(4) I can't ride a bicycle, so I have to walk on foot.
(5) I dont know whether he's coming to a party or he's staying home.
(6) Because he can't ride a bicycle, he has to walk on foot.
(7) He can't get a ride; therefore, he has to stay home.
WHAT CONJUNCTIONS CAN CONNECT?
In English, conjunctions can connect various items as follows:
(1) Conjunctions can connect words:
(i) Water or juice.
(i) Sauda and Jessica
(2) Conjunctions can connect phrases:
(i) The people in the bus and the people in the boat are making noise.
(ii) She likes the best music and the best musicians.
(3) Conjunctions can connect clauses:
(i) You can go home now or you can wait until we finish the party.
(ii) There are seats outside but some people don’t like sitting outside.
(4) Conjunctions can connect sentences:
(i) My father was not a teacher. However, he liked teaching more than any other job.
(ii) She likes fruits. But she doesn't like bananas.
TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS
There are four (04) types of conjunctions in English language. They are:
Types of Conjunctions in summary:
(1) Coordinating conjunctions (or, and, but)
(3) Subordinating conjunctions (since, because, when)
(3) Correlative conjunctions (and/or, not only/but also)
(4) Conjunctives (however, therefore)
HERE IS A CLOSER LOOK AT EACH TYPE OF CONJUNCTIONS
1. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Coordinating conjunctions are the conjunctions that link words, phrases or sentences with equivalent grammatical elements or ideas with the same weight (E.g: nouns with nouns or clauses with clauses). Coordinating conjunctions are single words:
Examples of conjunctions: and, but, or, so.
Examples of sentences:
(1) (And) He is cooking and I am washing the dishes.
(2) (Or) He said he will come or he will postpone.
(3) (So) Yesterday I worked hard on the farm, so I was tired the next day.
(4) (And) She is editing and proofreading my essay.
(5) (Or) I want money or a ticket for the game.
(6) (And) We like going to the beach and camping.
(7) I can drive you to the beach, but not to the party.
LIST OF COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Some people use the mnemonic FANBOYS to remember the common seven coordinating conjunctions in English language:
Note: Coordinating conjunctions are not many in English. They are fixed.
2. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Subordinating conjunctions are conjunctions that unite ideas in a complex sentence. These kinds of conjunctions link dependent clauses (incomplete thoughts) to independent clauses (complete thoughts).
Subordinating conjunction is made up by one or more words.
Examples: although, as soon as, in case, unless, while.
Examples of sentences:
(1) (Unless) Unless we give him a ride, he won't be able to come early.
(2) (Although) Although we underestimated him, he won the game.
(3) (In case) Take this money in case you want to buy something.
(4) [subordinate clause]After we had lost the match, [main clause] coach told us to rest.
(5) [main clause]Everyone enjoyed the match [subordinate clause] although we didn't win.
(6) [subordinate clause]Before we left home, [main clause]we had something to eat.
(7) (As long as) As long as we are all here, we can start the meeting.
(8) (Provided that) Provided that he studies hard, he will pass exams. (formal)
(9) (Because) Because it was raining, we had to cancel our journey.
(10) (After) After leaving the window open last night, my room was a mess.
(11) (Unless) Unless I study hard, I'll never become a pilot.
LIST OF SOME SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS:
- as soon as
- by the time
- in case
- now that
- whether or not
- as if
- even though
- so that
- in spite of
- such that
Note: Unlike coordinating conjunctions which are fixed in numbers, there are plenty of subordinating conjunctions in English language.
A COMMON MNEMONIC FOR SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Here is an interesting mnemonic to help you remember subordinating conjunctions easily:
ON A WHITE BUS:
O = once, only if
N = now that
A = as, although, after
W = while, when, whereas, whenever, wherever, whether
H = how
I = if, in case, in order to, in the event that
T = though
E = even if, even though
B = because, before
U = unless, until
S = so, so that, since, supposing.
3. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
Correlative conjunctions are conjunctions which link or connect grammatical elements of similar importance. These conjunctions work in pairs.
Examples: either/or, both/and, not only/but also, as/as.
Examples of sentences:
(1) (As....as) She is as beautiful as her mother.
(2) (Not only.......but also.....) I did not only pass the exam, but also I got 100%.
(3) (As.......as....) The box is as tall as it is wide.
(4) (Either......or....) You can either drink juice or soda.
(5) (Neither.......nor.....) Neither Lisa nor Helena had been to Ruvuma before.
(6) (Both.......and.....) Both you and I know what really happened.
LIST OF SOME CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS:
Below are some of the most common pairs of correlative words:
- not only/but also
- No sooner…..than….
- not only/but also
Note: This list is not exhaustive, except for the coordinating conjunctions. There are plenty of correlative conjunctions in English language.
By definition, a conjunctive (n) is a word that serves to join words, phrases, clauses or sentences.
So, conjunctives are conjunctions used to join two independent clauses. Conjunctives also function as adverbs (Conjunctive adverbs), but they also aperform the same linking function as conjunctions.
A conjunctive is made up of one or more words.
Examples: after all, besides, nevertheless.
Examples of sentences:
(1) (However) She is beautiful; however, she did not win the beauty contest.
(2) (Therefore) We have lost the match; therefore, we need to focus on the next match.
(3) (Therefore) There is a heavy rain; therefore, we expect more floods.
(4) (Nevertheless) I never liked eating vegetables. Nevertheless, I ask my kids to eat them.
(5) We are happy to pay all expenses; after all, youre doing us a favor.
LIST OF SOME CONJUNCTIVES
Below are some frequently-used conjunctive adverbs:
- after all
Note: This list is not exhaustive, except for the coordinating conjunctions. There are plenty of Conjunctive conjunctions in English language.
CONJUNCTION RULES & EXAMPLES
English Grammar is a home to countless number of rules. Here are some rules that will be fundamental in understanding conjunctions:
Words and phrases such as: above all, anyway, as a result, as well, eventually, firstly, however, overall, rather, then, therefore, though, on the contrary (linking adjuncts) can create similar meanings to conjunctions (e.g. adding, cause and effect). These words are adverb phrases and can come in any position which an adverb can occupy:
(1) He came home eventually.
= Eventually, he came home.
(2) He left home late as a result.
= As a result he didn’t arrive early.
Be careful not to use too many coordinating conjunctions. This can lead to run-on sentences.
When a coordinating conjunction joins two independent clauses (complete thoughts or sentences), use a comma between the clauses.
(1) I can't remember the rules, so I need to remind myself every time.
When youre joining an independent clause and a dependent clause (incomplete thought), you dont need a comma. In other words, when the main clause comes first, we don’t need to use a comma.
(1) I'm happy to see you although I don't know you.
(2) We'll leave as soon as we finish this job.
(3) I prefer to write on my laptop but edit on paper.
When the subordinate clause comes before the main clause, we usually put a comma at the end of the clause. - Use a comma if the subordinating conjunction and dependent clause are at the beginning of a sentence.)
(1) Although I don't know you, I'm happy to see you.
(2) As soon as she finished her homework, she started cooking.
The subordinating conjunction is placed in front of the dependent clause because it modifies the independent clause and provide a cause, reason, result or purpose.
Correlative conjunctions need parallel construction. Check the words after each conjunction and make sure they are similarly structured.
(1) You should arrive early or you will be late for the meeting. (CORRECT)
(2) You should arrive early but you will be late for the meeting. (INCORRECT)
Place the correlative words immediately before the words you want to connect.
(1) You can either call me or just leave it.
(2) Both my father and mother are teachers.
When uniting two independent clauses in one sentence, use a semicolon and followed by a comma, i.e, a semicolon or period should come before a conjunctive adverb and a comma after.
(1) The match was very amazing; however, we lost.
(2) He is the famous musician; however, he rarely performs.
For copies of these books,
+255622 009 566/+255765 884 936
+255765 884 936